White Papers, aerospace industry research - Aerospace Manufacturing and Design

Welcome to Aerospace Manufacturing and Design's whitepapers. Please click on a title below to view the whitepaper.

US Digital - Resolution, Accuracy, and Precision of Encoders

Three important concepts deserve attention: Resolution, accuracy, precision.

At first glance, it may seem that all three mean roughly the same thing. You may wonder if they’re interchangeable; indeed, many people speak of them as if they are. After all, if an encoder has high resolution, doesn’t that mean it’s accurate? And if it is, then it has to be precise, right? (Please note: the answer to these last two questions is a firm no.) In fact, the terms are independent of each other. Each refers to a specific encoder characteristic, and they are not interchangeable.

To clear up any confusion, download the free whitepaper to learn what resolution means for incremental encoders, noting any differences for linear and absolute encoders. Following that the author moves on to accuracy, and finishes with precision. Along the way, you'll get tips on how to use knowledge about each term to make the best encoder selection, and how to calibrate a system once the encoder is in place.


Effect of Dressing Overlap Ratio on the Grinding Process
A good understanding of overlap ratio dressing parameter and its effects on grinding wheel performance can result in optimal precision grinding operations. Overlap ratio is specifically used when truing and dressing using rotary or stationary dressing tools in a traverse dress mode. Overlap ratio is not used in plunge dressing applications. Norton St. Gobain engineers Taqwa Gilani – Corporate Application Engineer, and John Hagan – Senior Application Engineer explain the details in this white paper.


Machining Titanium for the Aerospace Industry
Machining advancements for titanium have made the once exotic and rarely-used metal one of the most sought after and fastest growing materials to hit the market. Suppliers need the right machines combined with the proper tools and know-how. This whitepaper from Toyoda Machinery tells what you should expect from your machines to manufacture products from heat-resistant super alloys such as titanium cost-effectively and quickly.


Forging as a Viable Alternative to 3D Printing of Non-Ferrous Metal Parts

3D printing technologies are being developed to build metal objects, generally by laser-sintering powdered metal feedstock. The hope of the universities and corporations pursuing the technology is that the ability to print metal parts will bring about a revolution in industrial production by supplanting traditional metalworking methods like forging. This paper from Weldaloy explores the question: Which would be the better choice for making parts for use in the aerospace, medical, and other industries?


Rolled Ring Forging Process Delivers a Better Product in Less Time

With the right material selection, proven forging processes, and proper tools, Weldaloy has all the ingredients to manufacture seamless rolled rings in less time, with less material wastage, and with a more uniform grain that ensures the strength and reliability of your product. The goal of this technical paper is to help you determine which forging process is right for you in meeting your seamless rolled ring needs.


SIFCO Process selective plating 

A technical paper making the case for selective plating in aerospace.

By highlighting the performance and portability of the aerospace-approved, trademarked SIFCO Process, this white paper makes the case for wider use of selective plating for repair and OEM applications. Case studies demonstrate its mechanical properties, viability as an alternative to cadmium, deployment in the field, and how the process can be automated. Click here to download the technical paper.


Instant Insight Is Profit

Optimizing Your Business through Broad Based Automated Information Systems

We have used the old adage Time is Money forever at just about every level of management looking to sum up the complex path to success. This still applies in today’s business models, however, leading and industry changing businesses have recognized now that access to instant insight is profit.

Successful leaders and their organizations understand the key information components that yield improved profit through real time information availability and the rapid decisions conceived from this information. In many cases automated information collection and rapid access to it is the core reason these organizations dominate their field today and will continue to do so in the future.



Trends in Multisensor Measurement

Tactile and optical measurement techniques each have their strengths, and there are certainly measurement tasks that require only one of the two.

In systems designed for automated precision measurement, users are typically balancing accuracy of measurement, speed of operation, and cost to purchase and operate. The need for tradeoffs and sometimes-difficult choices will always be with us, but the introduction of multisensory measurement throughout the last several decades, along with subsequent improvement in its capabilities, offers opportunities for improvement in all three areas.


Active versus Passive Scanning for Multi-Point Measurement

There are two available contact-scanning technologies: passive and active. Passive scanning probe heads use springs to hold the stylus in its neutral position and strain gauges to measure deflection.

Both record surface data based on the movement of a stylus connected to a scanning head. The difference is what goes on inside the scanning head. The distinction between touch-trigger (single point) measurement and scanning is well known. Touch trigger has been described as a “woodpecker” approach measure a point, move to another location, measure again, and repeat until the job is done. The surface or feature condition between the points that are actually measured may be estimated by interpolation, but significant deviations can be missed. Also, because each measurement is a discrete operation and the measuring head must be repositioned to measure the point, the process can be very slow. Scanning, on the other hand, is accomplished with a fluid and continuous movement that can quickly and accurately measure hundreds or thousands of points along a path as the stylus moves across a surface. But while all scanning technologies offer advantages over single-point measurement, all scanning probe heads are not the same.


Communications System Design

An overview of system level design for wireless communications equipment.

This white paper presents an overview of system level design for wireless communications equipment. It will be useful not just to those involved in the development of new communications systems, but also to designers of new products using existing systems, or anybody seeking to develop new architectures and/or components to reduce product cost and/or size. It also describes the benefits and implications of developing highly integrated System on a Chip (SoC) solutions, which dominate in today's high volume communications products.


How to ensure bolted joint integrity when using a compression limiter in a plastic assembly

Read what Tara Meinck, Application Engineer with Spirol Int’l Corp. USA says about ensuring bolted joint integrity.

Compression Limiters are used to protect plastic components in bolted joints and maintain a threaded fastener’s clamp load by eliminating plastic creep. To function properly, bearing surface beneath the bolt’s head must extend over the Compression Limiter to contact the plastic component. If this bearing surface is too small, the host component may not be retained by the bolt resulting in a poor joint.