August 2021 winner:
Joseph E. Yehoda, Ph.D., Technology Director, Diamonex, Allentown, Pennsylvania
How long have you been in the aerospace business? More than 25 years.
How did you become interested in aircraft? From an early age, I enjoyed going to air shows as well as the U.S. Air Force museum in Dayton, Ohio, and the Smithsonian Air & Space museum in Washington, D.C. A highlight was attending the air show at Edwards AFB in 1987 that celebrated the 40th anniversary of transonic flight.
What is your favorite aircraft and why? The Supermarine Spitfire. Its elliptical wing design and bubble canopy gave it a very distinctive look. It was an innovative aircraft for its time.
National Air and Space Intelligence Center
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
Collins Aerospace Binghamton,
To enter the contest, visit www.AerospaceManufacturingAndDesign.com/Form/NameThatPlane and fill out the provided entry form. Only completed forms will qualify. A full set of rules is provided.
Have fun, and good luck!
The entry deadline for this issue’s contest is December 6, 2021. Winners will be announced in the January-February 2022 issue.
Look what Joseph won!
Enter today to win your own high-quality desktop aircraft replica!
Boeing’s unmanned MQ-25 T1 test vehicle refueled a U.S. Navy F-35C Lightning II fighter jet for the first time. The Navy and Boeing demonstrated the MQ-25’s primary mission with three aerial refueling flights in three months, also using an F/A-18 Super Hornet and E-2D Hawkeye.
“Every test flight with another type/model/series aircraft gets us one step closer to rapidly delivering a fully mission-capable MQ-25 to the fleet,” says Capt. Chad Reed, the Navy’s Unmanned Carrier Aviation program manager.
MQ-25’s two years of more than 120 hours of flight test data has been integrated into its digital models to strengthen the digital thread connecting aircraft design, production, test operations, and sustainment. Boeing is currently manufacturing the first two MQ-25 test aircraft
Honeywell introduces light drone technology
Compared with traditional drones using batteries and line-of-sight radio links, drones equipped with Honeywell’s beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) technologies can fly farther, carry more weight, avoid hazards up to 3km away, and stream video of their progress anywhere in the world.
Honeywell’s BVLOS systems are for missions where distance or terrain interfere with radio links or visual guidance. Applications include last-mile package delivery, military intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, pipeline and power line inspection, search & rescue, or first responder use. The suite includes:
- 600W and 1,200W hydrogen fuel cells
- RDR-84K multipurpose radar
- Inertial measurement units (IMUs)
- UAV Satcom small, light satellite transceiver
The fuel cells operate 3x longer than batteries with equivalent output, work silently, and emit no greenhouse gases. Operators can refuel or swap hydrogen tanks in minutes, enabling more time in the air.
The RDR-84K phased-array radar steers beams electronically, with no moving parts, and requires no heavy cooling systems. It can avoid other aircraft, detect obstacles, map terrain, identify landing zones, act as an altimeter, and provide mapping for alternate navigation if GPS guidance fails.
The satellite uplink can be used to download real-time weather and traffic reports from other drones.
The BVLOS suite will allow drone designers to combine data in new ways to save weight and power.
“These are technologies that businesses have been waiting for,” says Stéphane Fymat, vice president and general manager of Honeywell’s Unmanned Aerial Systems and Urban Air Mobility business unit. “They will help make drones profitable for a world of new applications.”
Swift Tactical Systems tests VTOL UAS
Swift Engineering subsidiary Swift Tactical Systems completed more than two dozen flights at Leach Field, a high-altitude unmanned aerial system (UAS) test site in Alamosa County, Colorado, to collect data on the high-altitude density performance of the Swift021 vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) UAS.
“These positive performance tests have proven the Swift021 VTOL UAS will take-off, transition, perform with precision, and land accurately at more than 10,000ft density altitude,” says Swift Tactical Systems Vice President Alex Echeverria.
Also tested, Silvus StreamCaster radios reliably streamed video and data back to the ground station, even in challenging conditions and austere environments.
These extended capabilities are being put to use as Swift Tactical Systems continues to support The Bahamas Ministry of National Security in extending their UAS program to support their police, defense force, and customs operations.
The all-electric Swift021 offers up to 2 hours’ flight endurance and 40+ miles operational range.
Food, medical drone delivery milestone
ANRA Technologies completed 100 flight hours delivering food and medicine beyond visual line of sight in India. The drone transported products from Swiggy, India’s largest online food ordering and delivery platform, as part of a project awarded by the Directorate General of Aviation (DGCA) and Ministry of Civil Aviation (MOCA).
The project flew more than 350 sorties, transiting 1,100km without incident. Flights consisted of multirotor drones operating ANRA’s SmartSkies CTR and SmartSkies DELIVERY software. ANRA recently closed a multi-million-dollar funding round led by a consortium of global investors that will accelerate development and continued expansion of its software portfolio and grow its international team.
UAS Global Services expands fleet
Texas-based drone design, operations, and consultancy firm UAS Global Services (UAS-GS) has added two unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to its fleet. The Anzen EG-1250 is a dual-engine, dual-rotor, heavy-lift, long-range, multi-purpose Group 3 platform. Its maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) is 250 lb (113kg), with 75 lb (34kg) of payload. Cruise speed is 65kts with up to 6 hours’ endurance.
Ireland-based UAV Evolution Ltd. commissioned UAS-GS to develop the dual rotor platform initially to support offshore oil & gas clients in challenging environmental conditions.
The second UAS, the Sicura EG-1100 3rd-generation single-rotor helicopter, is available to external customers. MTOW is 55 lb (25kg), endurance up to 3.5 hours using an internal combustion engine or a flight time of 1 hour in electric mode, 15 lb (7kg) payload capacity, and cruise speed of 55kts.
German engine manufacturer Sky Power GmbH manufactures the Anzen EG-1250’s electric-gas dual engines. The primary engine is the Skypower SP-180 SRE rotary engine; the secondary engine is a NeuMotors 12030/5.5 30kW electric motor that can power the aircraft or power boost the gas engine.
The EG-1100 is available with an electric motor or Sky Power’s SP-110 TS ROS two-stroke internal combustion engine modified for flight.
AAC launches hybrid multirotor unmanned aircraft system
After four years of development, Hampton, Virginia-based Advanced Aircraft Company (AAC) launched its Hybrid Advanced Multirotor (HAMR) unmanned aircraft system (UAS).
HAMR’s hybrid propulsion system uses an electronic fuel injected 35cc single-piston gas engine driving a 2,000W generator to power six brushless DC electric motors and a backup battery. This configuration enables up to 3.5 hours of flight, 6x longer than a conventional battery-powered multirotor aircraft.
HAMR systems are designed and built to crewed aircraft standards to enable ISO AS9100 certification and employ line replaceable units (LRUs) for rapid in-field servicing. AAC aircraft are NDAA Sec. 848 compliant and built in the U.S. with qualified traceable parts.
Recent investments bring the company’s total funding to more than $2 million, enabling AAC to scale up manufacturing.
AAC is one of seven finalists in the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) First Responder UAS Endurance Challenge.
Team AAC placed first in the competition, taking home a cash prize of $100,000. Additionally, the company won three Best-in-Class Awards for Endurance, Innovation, and First Responders Choice, totaling an additional $35,000.
As I visit with customers and speak to operators, a common question I get is, “How do I choose the proper number of flutes for my end mill?” While this may seem like a trick question, it isn’t. In the old days it was rather simple, a 2-flute end mill was used for non-ferrous materials and a 4-flute end mill was used for ferrous materials.
This is no longer the case. We now have several choices in cutting tool material, helix angles, number of flutes, etc. In the past, and still today in some instances, end mills were made of high-speed steel. This gave way to cobalt and is now giving way to solid carbide cutting tool materials as well as coated materials. You can buy all the materials with coatings that allow the base cutting tool material to run at higher speeds. As we move toward higher speeds, tool balance and tool holding become more critical.
The key to ensuring end mills work properly is to guarantee you can evacuate the chip from the cut so that you don’t re-cut the chips. In processing the cut, don’t exceed the depth of the flute to facilitate chip evacuation.
Consider a milling cutter running on a high-temperature alloy. The diameter of the cutter is 0.75", the depth of the stepover is 0.060", the speed is 150sfm, and we’re using a 4-flute end mill. We’re running 764rpm at 0.005 chip load per tooth (cpt) and have 4 flutes. We are feeding our cutter at 15.3 inches per minute (ipm). Providing we can maintain the same stepover and we have sufficient horsepower to make the cut, we could move to a 6-flute cutter and feed at 22.9ipm. This would result in 33% reduced cut time.
So, is this science? Yes. You must make sure you have the correct horsepower available, the correct fixturing to hold the part securely, and the correct tooling to minimize runout and maintain chip thickness.
End milling is becoming more sophisticated as new tooling and coatings become available. Adding more flutes isn’t always the answer, so make sure you’ve done your homework and answered the questions asked above. However, once you’ve done this you can significantly reduce cycle times by applying the correct number of flutes to your end milling operations.
Whenever you’re looking to optimize shop operations, look at your end milling operations. There’s time and money spent here, and a simple change in the number of flutes used to machine parts may help you reduce your cost and be more competitive in quoting jobs to customers. This is a simple way to reduce cost and improve productivity. As always, work with your local tooling supplier and I’m sure they’ll help you choose the correct tooling for your job.
CMR Consultants email@example.com
Do you have specific topics you would like addressed or cutting tool challenges? Email me so I can address them in a future column.Mike Ramsey, president of CMR Consulting, retired from Kennametal Inc. as vice president, global machine tool industry sales, after 39 years of service in sales and marketing. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Z-Mike Pro provides absolute accuracy, reliability, and repeatability for dimensional measurements of O.D., ovality, taper, total indicated runout (TIR), and effective cutting diameter. The laser micrometer provides ±0.5µm accuracy and ±0.13µm repeatability offering versatility across a range of demanding measurement applications.
It’s available in two models to measure products up to 50mm. Ready-to-mount modular fixtures – from simple manual fixtures to fully automated and intelligent fixtures – to properly hold workpieces.
Turning grade for medium, high carbon steel
The AC8020P turning grade is for high efficiency turning of hard steel (~1030) and medium and high carbon steel (alloy steel, 1053, 4140, 4137 and bearing steel 52100). The grade fully complements the existing AC8000P series grades (AC8015P, AC8025P, and AC8035P) turning solutions for machining steel.
Increased strength of the alumina (Al2O3) layer delivers enhanced chip control while the golden surface color offers improved wear visibility. AC8020P has shown results of more than 2.5x chipping resistance versus conventional grades.
The EGU chipbreaker is recommended first and increases cutting speeds. The EGE chipbreaker is for applications requiring increased feed rates.
Automatic conveyor belt adjustment
The Auto-Take Up system conveyor enhancement eliminates the need for manual adjustments.
To prevent maintenance concerns or belt failures, the system automatically monitors tension using load cells on chain conveyors, including steel belt conveyors, drag conveyors, ScrapVeyor, and more. The system is wired to a programmable logic controller (PLC) which monitors tension and automatically tightens the belt to eliminate manual adjustments and downtime. It can be added to new conveyors or retrofitted onto existing models. If retrofitted onto an existing conveyor, the system can be operated using that conveyor’s original control panel. Automatic adjustments can be scheduled to be completed during low production times or shift changes.
Next generation CLOVER platform
CLOVER is a vendor-neutral platform that connects siloed systems and shares information across any application, database, cloud service, or application program interface (API) – whether in the cloud or on premises. The latest version further extends business processes across internal systems and related organizations, creating a shareable, digital fabric of information that enhances overall performance of a company’s product lifecycle management (PLM) system. CLOVER provides a unique job-processing architecture for a more holistic approach to building applications, minimizing customization, managing product data, and reducing total cost of ownership (TCO).