June 2019 answer: Vought OS2U Kingfisher
JUNE 2019 winner
Don Wilkins, Principal Engineer, Boeing Research and Technology, St. Louis, Missouri
How long have you been in the aerospace business? 39 years
How did you become interested in aircraft? When I was a small child, I saw an airplane so tiny and free in the clouds. Someone told me people were in that buzzing, whirling dot. How could you not be hooked?
What is your favorite aircraft and why? F-15, the world’s greatest fighter aircraft and the first I worked on.
Ian Baker Mechanical Engineer
Midwest City, Oklahoma
BAE Systems Inc.
Fort Walton Beach, Florida
To enter the contest, visit www.AerospaceManufacturingAndDesign.com/Form/NameThatPlane and fill out the provided entry form. Only completed forms will qualify. A full set of rules is provided.
The entry deadline for this issue’s contest is October 18, 2019. Winners will be announced in the November/December 2019 issue.
Have fun, and good luck!
Look what Don won!
Enter today to win your own high-quality desktop aircraft replica!
A hole is one of the most common features in typical aerospace components, providing clearance, location, connection, or weight reduction in parts and assemblies. Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) requirements can create unique challenges when drilling a wide range of material types that require different machining methods.
1) What are the greatest challenges in drilling for the aerospace manufacturing market? Quality standards are critical in aerospace parts. Hole position, size, roundness, straightness, and finish requirements are usually tight. To create proper holes, you need drilling tools engineered to meet these requirements. ISCAR provides self-centering geometries (HCP, HFP, and QCP-2M) in the SumoCham line to help with true position. This eliminates the spot drill or center-drilling process. SumoCham family drills are available from 4mm (0.157") to 25.9mm (1.295") in 0.1mm (0.004") increments. A similar tool, ChamIQ 700, covers 26mm (1.299") to 40mm (1.575") in 0.5mm (0.020") increments. Several common imperial sizes are also available. Drill bodies come in standard lengths of 1.5xD, 3xD, 5xD, 8xD, and 12xD.
2) What typical materials are encountered, and do they create any problems? Aerospace materials vary from aluminum, alloy steels, 300 series and PH stainless, titanium, Inconel, or Hastelloy. This wide variety of materials requires various edge preps – sharp, honed, T-land, or polished. Carrying inventory of all these types in solid carbide drills can be expensive. Indexable head drills become more economical, allowing shops to cut various materials from one drill body that accepts several types of carbide heads.
3) What setup aspects are critical to drilling quality holes? Drilling precise holes requires precise tool holders. Total indicator runout (TIR) is critical to produce quality holes. Manufacturers now offer runout compensation tooling, such as the ISCAR FineFit collet chuck that allows a tool to be dialed in to a TIR of 0.0008" or less. This is even more critical in reaming operations with carbide heads running at high speeds, such as ISCAR’s Bayo-T-Ream.
4) Continuous cutting is common, but how do you handle interrupted cuts such as cross holes? Double margin geometry heads (ICP-2M, QCP-2M) provide additional stability in interrupted cuts such as cross holes or angular entry and/or exit. It is important to reduce feed rates 30% to 50% through the interruptions. ISCAR introduced a new product, LogIQ3Cham with three flutes. This configuration provides additional improved stability for discontinuous cutting.
5) What processes are used for finishing? Reaming or boring is used to control diameter, roundness cylindricity, and straightness. Often, these secondary operations can be eliminated since IT8-IT9 hole tolerance is possible with SumoCham. Also, double-margin and wiper geometries can help improve finish, straightness, and roundness. Another finish operation is threading. With 0.1mm steps, a pre-hole can be expanded up or down in small increments to change the percentage of thread form for tapping or thread milling.
For more info: http://www.iscarusa.com
There was a different vibe at this year’s Paris Air Show. Boeing’s ongoing efforts to recertify its 737 MAX jetliners for flight overshadowed the company’s usual numbers game with Airbus, where every firm order, letter of intent, or memorandum of understanding was cause to issue a press release (for the numbers, please see my Paris Air Show article beginning on page 12). Instead, I noticed more focus on the future of aviation – electrification, autonomous air vehicles, digitization, and plans to return to supersonic flight.
Much of the predicted future of aviation – air taxis, autonomous air vehicles, and personal mobility solutions – depends on establishing and maintaining robust data security. The systems affected include the electric grid, communications networks, navigation, air traffic and surveillance radar, engine and flight sensors, passenger screening, and physical access to airplanes.
Todd Probert, Raytheon Co. vice president in intelligence, information, and services told me that any part with a networked sensor is a potential penetration point for a cyber attack. A pedigree for data – blockchain is one method to maintain data integrity – allows security from materials source to CAD file, to production and installation, all the way through to parts scrapping. Probert says another key is cyber resiliency, so when the inevitable hacking occurs, quick recovery with minimal disruption is possible.
Another discussion I had was with Robin Lineberger, aerospace and defense principal for consulting firm Deloitte. He points out that elevated mobility – air taxis, cargo drones, electric vertical take-off & landing (eVTOL) aircraft, etc. – will require a massive scaling-up of all the systems that make it possible.
Are there enough commercial off-the-shelf collision avoidance systems available? How about fly-by-wire flight control systems? Energy management systems? Artificial intelligence processors to determine if it is safe to fly? An industry that requires such units in the hundreds or thousands per year now will need to provide 10,000 or more per year to realize the mobility dream in the next few decades. Is the aerospace supply chain able to respond with such volumes? Is the automotive world a source for these systems? Is there a structure to deploy and manage the investment capital needed to finance production of all these components?
Then there are questions of who will win the race to maximize electric propulsion-motor weight and efficiency. What energy management (batteries, recharging) schemes make most sense? Where will the charging, operating infrastructure be located to avoid congestion? What business models (ride sharing, fractional ownership, private fleets) will be most profitable? What skillsets will be required to produce and maintain these vehicles? Lineberger and others are carefully assessing the market to answer these questions. What they learn will steer development of air mobility for years to come. – Eric
The AbrasiMet M benchtop manual saw cuts samples for quality control and parts inspection. Its 5.5hp (4kW) motor can accommodate 10" to 12" (254mm to 305mm) diameter abrasive blades. A maximized cutter chamber space and sliding hood speed sample preparation.
An enclosed motor-cutting arm keeps out debris and coolant to maximize motor life. Compatible vises, clamping kit, and blocks are available.